Практическо ръководство за обучение по директивите за сео и овос



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9. Проследяващи действия след приключване на процедурата по ОВОС


В Директивата няма такова изискване, но отново то се счита за добра практика.

След извършването на ОВОС на определен проект, определянето на резултатите от неговото изпълнение се осъществява чрез проследяващите действия, които се смятат за връзката между етапа преди и този след вземането на решението, като така обхващат цялата продължителност на проекта – от изграждането до края на експлоатацията му и дейностите по закриването.



Проследяващите действия са много полезно средство в случай на несигурност при прогнозирането и оценката на въздействията в хода на ОВОС.

Цели на проследяващите действия:

  • верифицирането на адекватността на изпълнението на проекта, като се вземат предвид одобрените с решението по ОВОС/разрешението за осъществяване условия;

  • верифициране на въздействията върху мерките за опазване на околната среда и за предотвратяване/смекчаване с цел да се гарантира, че въздействията остават в границите на прогнозираното и разрешеното;

  • идентифициране на непредвидените въздействия или промени и предприемането на коригиращи мерки;

  • оптимизиране на ползите за околната среда чрез прилагането на добри практики;

  • обучение чрез опит с цел усъвършенстване на процеса по ОВОС и бъдещите практики.

Трябва да бъдат споменати няколко аспекта на проследяващите действия:

  • Мониторинг:

  • събиране на данни с цел определяне на базовите условия на околната среда;

  • събиране на данни за мониторинга на въздействията – данни, свързани с дейностите;

  • пробовземане и специфични анализи за оценяване на емисиите на проекта, например във въздуха, водите, почвите, образуването на твърди отпадъци и шум и т.н. и проверка на съответствие с нормите за опазване на околната среда (както на етапа на строителството така и на този на експлоатацията);

  • ключови аспекти на процесите и дейностите по експлоатацията;

  • материали и химични вещества, използвани за дейностите по проекта (както на етапа на строителството така и на този на експлоатацията);

  • видове и количества отпадъци, образувани в резултат на изпълнението на проекта (за всяка една от фазите).

Горепосочените аспекти, свързани с мониторинга може да бъдат включени в ПМОС:

  • Оценяване:

      • съответствие с нормите, прогнозите и очакванията;

      • оценка на екологичното поведение на дейността;

  • Управление:

  • приемане на решения за предприемане на подходящи коригиращи мерки за справяне и решаване на проблемите, възникващи от несъответствие с правните изисквания, нормите за опазване на околната среда и т.н.;

  • приемане на решения за предприемане на подходящи действия за подобряване на изпълнението на дейностите по изпълнението на проекта;

  • Информиране:

  • на заинтересованите страни относно проследяващите дейности.

Страните, участващи в проследяващите действията са възложителят на проекта, КО по околна среда, други КО, ангажирани с мониторинга на околната среда, напр. други заинтересовани страни.

Основните аспекти на проследяващите дейности се включват в ПМОС, разработвана от възложителя, която обикновено се внася като самостоятелен документ, придружаващ ДОВОС. Практиката показва, че някои от резултатите от ОВОС се използват за изготвянето на тази програма.



Компоненти, които обикновено се включват в ПМОС:

  • информация за възложителя;

  • описание на предлаганата дейност, вкл. информация и данни относно етапите на строителство и експлоатация;

  • описание на местоположението на проекта;

  • обобщение относно критичните дейности, оказващи въздействия, които са с умерена или голяма значимост;

  • релевантните правни изисквания, норми и т.н., приложими към проекта;

  • регулаторните документи (вече издадените и или тези за които ще подава заявление) относно етапите на строителство и експлоатация на проекта;

  • програма от мерки за предотвратяване/смекчаване на неблагоприятните въздействия върху околната среда;

  • препоръчва се да се разгледат и етапите на дизайна, строителството и експлоатацията на проекта, като се определят конкретни мерки за предотвратяване/смекчаване на неблагоприятните въздействия върху околната среда, идентифицирани на всеки етап от изпълнението на проекта и отговорностите за изпълнението на тези мерки;

  • препоръчва се да разгледат етапите на строителството и експлоатацията на проекта, като се обхванат аспектите, свързани с: инспекциите на място, емисиите от замърсители (във въздуха, водите, почвите и т.н.), образуването на отпадъци, институционалния капацитет за прилагане на ПМОС, формата и честотата на докладването на резултатите от мониторинга;

  • график за изпълнение и докладване на ПМОС, показващ последователността и времето (вкл. честотата и продължителността) на управлението и мониторинга на дейностите по ПМОС.

Както бе казано по-горе, ЗООС и Наредбата за ОВОС изискват изработването на план за предотвратяване или намаляване на значителните вредни въздействия за осигуряване на съответствие с нормативната уредба по околна среда. Този план е част от ДОВОС и се основава на установените въздействия и най-подходящите мерки за предотвратяване/смекчаване.

Източници


  • Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001L0042:EN:NOT);

  • Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:026:0001:0021:EN:PDF);

  • Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/COM-2012-628.pdf);

  • Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?T1=V1&T2=1992&T3=43&RechType=RECH_consolidated&Submit=Search);

  • Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?arg0=2009%2F147&arg1=&arg2=&titre=titre&chlang=en&RechType=RECH_mot&idRoot=13&refinecode=LEG*T1%3DV112%3BT2%3DV1%3BT3%3DV1&Submit=Search);

  • Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?T1=V1&T2=2000&T3=60&RechType=RECH_consolidated&Submit=Search);

  • Council Directive of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources (91/676/EEC) (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?T1=V1&T2=1991&T3=676&RechType=RECH_consolidated&Submit=Search);

  • Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?T1=V3&T2=2001&T3=81&RechType=RECH_consolidated&Submit=Search);

  • Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?arg0=2008%2F50&arg1=&arg2=&titre=titre&chlang=en&RechType=RECH_mot&idRoot=16&refinecode=LEG*T1%3DV112%3BT2%3DV1%3BT3%3DV1&Submit=Search);

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  • Directive 2012/18/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directive 96/82/EC (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?arg0=2012%2F18&arg1=&arg2=&titre=titre&chlang=en&RechType=RECH_mot&idRoot=16&refinecode=LEG*T1%3DV112%3BT2%3DV1%3BT3%3DV1&Submit=Search);

  • Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information and repealing Council Directive 90/313/EEC (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Result.do?arg0=2003%2F4&arg1=&arg2=&titre=titre&chlang=en&RechType=RECH_mot&idRoot=6&refinecode=LEG*T1%3DV112%3BT2%3DV1%3BT3%3DV1&Submit=Search);

  • European Commission Guidance on implementation of Directive 2001/42 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/030923_sea_guidance.pdf);

  • Environmental indicators:Typology and overview Technical report No 25/1999 (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/TEC25);

  • Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention) (http://www.unece.org/env/eia/about/eia_text.html);

  • Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention)(http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/pp/documents/cep43e.pdf);

  • Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the application and effectiveness of the Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Directive 2001/42/EC) of 2009 (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52009DC0469:EN:NOT);

  • Study concerning the report on the application and effectiveness of the SEA Directive (2001/42/EC), June 2009 (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/study0309.pdf);

  • Guidance on implementation of Directive 2001/42 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment, European Commission (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/030923_sea_guidance.pdf);

  • Relationship between the EIA and the SEA Directives, Final Report to the European Commission, Imperial College London Consultants, 2005 (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/final_report_0508.pdf);

  • Final Report, IMPEL Project: Implementing Article 10 of the SEA Directive 2001/42/EC, 2002(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/impel_final_report.pdf);

  • Land-Use Planning Guidelines, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2006 (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/seveso/pdf/landuseplanning_guidance_en.pdf);

  • Web-site of the ECJ (http://curia.europa.eu/);

  • Other guidance and interpretation documents, studies and reports issued by or on behalf of the European Commission (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-support.htm);

  • UNEP Environmental Impact Assessment Training Resource Manual, Second Edition: (http://www.unep.ch/etu/publications/EIAman_2edition_toc.htm);

  • Sadler B (1999) A Framework for Environmental Sustainability Assessment and Assurance. In Petts J (ed.) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (Vol. 1, pp.12-32). Blackwell Science Ltd, London, UK.

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  • “Implementation of Directive 2001/42 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment” (September 2003) European Commission. www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment

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  • Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:026:0001:0021:EN:PDF);

  • Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/COM-2012-628.pdf);

  • Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention): http://www.unece.org/env/eia/about/eia_text.html

  • Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention): http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/pp/documents/cep43e.pdf

  • Report “Collection of Information and Data to Support the Impact Assessment Study of the Review of the EIA Directive” (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/collection_data.pdf);

  • Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the application and effectiveness of the EIA Directive (Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Directives 97/11/EC and 2003/35/EC) (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0378:FIN:EN:PDF);

  • Study concerning the report on the application and effectiveness of the EIA Directive, June 2009 (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/eia_study_june_09.pdf);

  • Guidance on EIA Screening (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-guidelines/g-screening-full-text.pdf);

  • Guidance on EIA Scoping (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-guidelines/g-scoping-full-text.pdf);

  • Guidance on EIA EIS Review (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-guidelines/g-review-full-text.pdf);

  • Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects - Rulings of the Court of Justice (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/eia_case_law.pdf);

  • Web-site of the ECJ (http://curia.europa.eu/);

  • Other guidance and interpretation documents, studies and reports issued by or on behalf of the European Commission (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-support.htm);

  • International Study of the Effectiveness of Environmental Assessment (“Sadler Report”) (http://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/Content/2/B/7/2B7834CA-7D9A-410B-A4ED-FF78AB625BDB/iaia8_e.pdf);

  • UNEP Environmental Impact Assessment Training Resource Manual, Second Edition: (http://www.unep.ch/etu/publications/EIAman_2edition_toc.htm);

  • Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development “Our Common Future” (“Brundtland Report”)(http://conspect.nl/pdf/Our_Common_Future-Brundtland_Report_1987.pdf)

Further reading

  • Bailey J and Dixon J (1999) Policy Environmental Assessment. In Petts J (ed) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (Vol. 1, pp. 251-272). Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.

  • Handbook on Environmental Assessment of Regional Development Plans and Structural Funds http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/eia/home.htm

  • Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 18 (3), 2000. Special issue on strategic environmental assessment, planning and policy-making (W Thiessen, guest editior).

  • Mikulic N, Dusik J, Sadler B and Casey-Lefkowitz S (eds.) (1998) Strategic Environmental Assessment in Transitional Countries: Emerging Practices. Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, Szentendre, Hungary.

  • SEA of District and Territorial Development Plans in Hong Kong SAR. http://www.info.gov.hk/epd

  • SEAN process to formulate sustainable development plans and strategy. http://www.seanplatform.org

  • Canter L (1996) Environmental Impact Assessment. McGraw-Hill, New York.

  • EIA Centre (1995) EIA in Developing Countries. EIA Leaflet Series L15, EIA Centre, University of Manchester, UK.

  • Glasson J, Therivel R and Chadwick A (1999) Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. UCL Press, London.

  • Goodland R. and Mercier J-R (1999) The Evolution of Environmental Assessment in the World Bank: From “Approval” to Results. Environment Department papers No. 67, World Bank, Washington D.C.

  • Petts J (1999) Environmental Impact Assessment - Overview of Purpose and Process, in Petts J (ed) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (Vol.1) pp. 3-11. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.

  • Petts J (1999) Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice: Fulfilled Potential or Wasted Opportunity, in Petts J (ed) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (Vol. 2) pp. 3-9. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.

  • World Bank (1991) Environmental Assessment Sourcebook. (Vol.1) Environment Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

  • World Bank (1996) The Impact of Environmental Assessment: The World Bank”s Experience. (Second Environmental Assessment Review) Environment Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C.


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