The past simple tense of the most english verbs (regular verbs) is formed by adding
"-ed"/"-d" to their base form. (If the verb ends in "-e", we add "-d"to form the past simple.)
There are also some verbs calledirregular verbs that have special past tense forms.
Regular verbs: base form + "-ed" or "-d":
work + "-ed" = worked live + "-d" = lived
Irregular verbs: past form only
To form the negative and interrogative sentences we use the past form of auxiliary verb do -->did:
you DID + NOT
we + WORK
He didn't work yesterday.
She didn't see him last night.
DID he/she/it WORK?
Did he work yesterday?
Did she see him last night?
If it is the verb "to be" we usewas/were before the subject:
Was he at the office the other day?
Questions and short answers:
Did you go to the cinema last night?
Yes, I did.
No, I didn't.
Did he speak with Kate yesterday?
Yes, he did.
No, he didn't.
1. We arrived at 9:00 o'clock.
2. This morning I went to the supermarket.
3. The teacher went to the desk.
4. He didn't hear the telephone.
5. Susan bought her little sister a doll.
6. We came here in 1980.
7. I worked at Johnson & Co. from 1990 to 1995.
8. My brother lived in London for six years. (he doesn't live there anymore)
to describe actions and situations that happened in the past. These actions and situations were started and finished in the past.
The sentence often contains an adverb or adverb phrase of time, such as yesterday,the other day, last night, last week,three days ago, a few minutes ago, in (year), from (year) to (year), etc.
1. When she was young, she danced beautifully.
2. He played the violin when he was a child.
3. We often went there.
4. I saw her every day.
to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past
Note: This use is also often expressed with used to:
Bob used to smoke 20 cigarettes a day.
1. It happened one night in the winter.
2. She opened her bag, took out the key and unlocked the door.
to tell a story and to express actions which follow each other in a story
1. World War II ended in 1945.
2. Romans built strong bridges.
to refer to the historical past or to events that have happened in the distant past relative to the speaker
1. David said that he was tired.
2. The doctor told me that I would have to stay in the hospital for a week.
for reporting what someone said (converting from direct to reported speech)
1. When Peter arrived, I was reading a book.
2. I was having a bath when the phone rang.
to talk about action in the past that take place in the middle of another action
1. If I won the lottery, I would travel the world.
2. If I were you, I wouldn't marry him.
for making second conditional sentences (also called conditional type 2) when we talk about an imaginary or unlikely situation and to describe its result. (If + past simple, would + infinitive)
Spelling rules for the past simple of regular verbs:
if a regular verb ends in consonant + y change y to i and add -ed:
carry - carried, study - studied, fry - fried, try – tried if a one syllable regular verb ends
in consonant + vowel + consonant double the final consonant and add -ed -- > stop - stopped, plan - planned, rob - robbed, beg - begged
if a regular verb has more than one syllable and ends in consonant + vowel +consonant, we double the final consonant only if the final syllable is stressed -- > preFER - preferred, regRET - regretted
Exception: In British English verbs ending in -l have -ll before -ed whether the final syllable is stressed or not -- > travel - travelled
Pronunciation of final "-ed" (regular verbs):
after an unvoiced consonant sound (sh/ s / ch / p / k / f ) we pronounce /t/: wash (/sh/) - washed (/t/); kiss (/s/) - kissed (/t/); work (/k/) - worked (/t/); hope (/p/) - hoped (/t/); laugh (/f/) - laughed (/t/)
after a vowel and voiced consonant sounds we pronounce /d/: phone (/n/) - phoned (/d/); judge (/dg/) - judged (/d/); turn (/n/) - turned (/d/); play (/ei/) - played (/d/); follow (/ou/) - followed (/d/)
after /t/ and /d/ sounds we pronounce /-id/: visite (/t/) - visited (/id/); start (/t/) - started (/id/); need (/d/) - needed (/id/)
1. Here are the past tense forms of some verbs. Write in the base forms:
Three of them end in – ed. They are the past tense forms of regular verbs. The others are irregular.
2. Read the sentences below:
a./ In 1958, Eli Beeding, Jr rode a rocket sledge when it was shot along a track from a standstill to a speed of 72.5 mi / h ( = 117 km / h ) in a fantastic time of 0.04 s ( less than the blink of an eye ).
b./ In 1977 Kitty O’Neil set records for “ terminal speed” and “ elapsed time” for a dragster on a 440 – yd run. From a standstill, she reached 392.54 mi/h ( about 632.1 km/h ) in a sizzling time of 3.72 s.
c./ On April 4, 1974, John Massic of Belgium managed to move two passenger cars. He did so by clamping his teeth down on a bit that was attached to the cars with a rope. The car weighed about 80 tons. Did Massic have superhuman force to accelerate the cars?
3. Work in pairs
Ask and answer questions about the paragraphs.
Example : − What did Eli Beeding ride in 1958?
− A rocket sledge.
• Grammar questions:
− Why is the past simple tense used in the paragraph?
− How do we form the questions?
− How do we form the negatives?
1. The present simple or the past simple . Put the verbs in brackets in the correct
a. Thrust SSC (supersonic) car ……………(be) the invention of Briton Richard Noble. In 1983 he ……………(set) the world speed record of 1,019.44 km / h.
b. When Copernicus …………(announce) the idea of a moving earth in the sixteenth
century, there ……………(be) much arguing and debating of this controversial idea.
c. The ancients ………………(believe) that light ………………(travel) from our eyes to the objects we ………………(look at), rather than from the objects to our eyes.
d. On October 17, 1989, a devastating earthquake ………………(strike) central California.
e. Einstein ………………( conclude ) that space and time ……………( be ) a part of a single entity – spacetime.
f. Motion in space …………………( affect ) motion in time.
g. When we ……………(sit) on a fast – moving train , we ……………(have) no speed at all relative to the train.
2. There are three pronunciations of the past tense ending –ed:
/ t / / d / / id /
Put the regular past tense forms in exersice 1 into the correct columns. Give more examples of the three pronunciations.
3. Put the sentences into the right order to make a complete paragraph
THE FALLING APPLE
Newton understood the concept of inertia developed earlier by Galileo.
According to popular legend, the idea occured to Newton while he was sitting under an apple tree.
He knew that without an outside force, moving objects continue to move at constant speed in a straight line.
He knew that if an object undergoes a change in speed or direction, then a force is responsible.
The idea that gravity extends throughout the universe is credited to Isaac Newton.
4. Speaking and listening
Work in pairs
Ask and answer question:
− What did you do last night?
on your last birthday?
− I watched TV / went to the cinema.
• Reading and speaking
1. Use your dictionary to check the meanings of these words below:
force (n) reach (v)
lean (v) observation (n)
resistance (n) get into trouble (v)
2. Put a given word from ex.1 (above) into each blank:
a. Force laws tell us how to calculate the ……………that will act on a body in a particular environment.
b. Do not …………………out of the window, you may fall.
c. Captain Robert Scott ………………the South Pole on January 17, 1912.
d. Astronomers often use telescopes to take an ……..… of stars in the sky.
e. Do not speed up. We may …………… with the police.
f. You don’t notice air ………………when walking, but you’ll notice it when skiing downhill.
3. Read the text about Galileo Galile:
(1564 – 1642)
The idea that a force causes motion goes back to the fourth century B.C, when the Greeks were developing ideas of science. The foremost Greek scientist was Aristotle. He studied motion and divided it into two kinds: natural motion and violent motion. Aristotle said that heavy things fall faster than light things; but he was wrong. Most of the later scientists believed Aristotle. This remained true until the time of Galileo, the Italian scientist . Galileo did not believe him.
Fig.1 Galileo’s famous demonstration
He went to school at Vallombrosa, near Florence, Italy. He tried to learn science there, but he did not like it. He went to the University of Pisa to continue his studies. There is a famous tower at Pisa. It does not stand straight up, but leans a little more each year. Galileo climbed to the top of the leaning Tower, and there he dropped two weights. One of them was heavier than the other, but they reached the ground at the same moment. Many scientists witnessed his experiment and they were very surprised. This did not agree with Aristotle’s rule. Galileo showed that falling objects have equal accelerations, regardless of their masses. But Galileo could not say why the accelerations were equal. Galileo made many other experiments, and he also made some telescopes. When he pointed a telescope at the moon, he saw some hills there. He also saw some of the millions of stars in the universe – more than anyone had ever seen. He thanked God, who let him see these wonderful things. In 1637 Galileo’s eyes failed, and then he could not see anything through his telescope. Five years later he died. The world then lost a great man, but in the same year (1642) another great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton, was born in England. He truly changed our way of seeing the world.
( From Elementary Scientific English Practice )
1. Are the statements true or false. Correct the false ones:
a. Galileo’s experiment from the Leaning Tower of Pisa demolished the Aristotelian
ideas of motion.
b. Galileo’s experiment explained why falling objects have equal accelerations,
regardless of their masses.
c. Galileo did not see anything when he pointed his telescope at the moon.
d. He died at the age of 78.
2. Answer the questions about the text:
a. Was Aristotle right when he said that heavy things fall faster than light things?
b. Why is the tower of Pisa famous?
c. Where did Galileo make his experiment?
d. What was the result of his experiment?
e. What did he study with telescopes ? Was he successful in his studies?
f. What happened in 1637?
g. When did he die?
h. Who was born in the same year when Galileo died?
3. Further question for discussion
Newton’s second law explained the result of Galileo’s experiment at the Leaning
Tower of Pisa. Do you know why? State Newton’s second law in words.
• Listening and reading
1. You will hear and discuss a concept summary that gives meanings of some important terms. These terms are related to part “ Mechanics”
2. Read the following definitions. There is a mistake in each definition. Listen and correct the mistakes:
a. Free fall
An object in free fall is falling under the influence of mass alone, where air resistance does not affect its motion.
The mass of an object depends on the location of the object.
Friction is a force that does not always react in a direction to oppose motion.
Acceleration is the rate at which speed is changing with respect to time.
Impulse is force multiplied by the distance in which it acts.
f. Vector quantities
Some quantities require magnitude for a complete description; these are vector quantities.
The force per unit of length is called pressure.
# Present Simple
_ The Present Simple expresses a fact which is true for a long time.
# Past Simple
_ The Past Simple expresses a finished action in the past.
1. We often need to change the units in which a physical quantity is expressed. We do so by a method called chain – link conversion.
2. Motion at constant velocity is motion in a straight line.
3. Aristotle did not recognize the idea of inertia because he failed to imagine what motion would be like without friction.
4. Newton was the first to realize that the acceleration we produce when we move something depends not only on how hard we push or pull but on the mass as well.
How do seat belts in cars save lives?
TRANSLATION FOR HOMEWORK Newton's First Law of Motion:
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
Newton's Second Law of Motion:
II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
Newton's Third Law of Motion:
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction