Академик Стефан Ангелов - патронът, основател и пръв директор на Института по микробиология, е роден на 28 февруари 1878 г. в Котел. През 1901 г. се дипломира като доктор по ветеринарна медицина в Берлинския университет. Специализира микробиология в лабораторията на Роберт Кох в Института Кох, Берлин (1905-1908 г.), където работи с известните сътрудници на Кох –Васерман, Ленц, Шилинг, Дьониц, Льофлер и Гафки. Работи и с проф. Остертаг в Института по хигиена, Берлин. През 1907 г. защитава докторската си степен в Гизен, където работи с Уленхут. По-късно работи във Франкфурт с Пол Ерлих, в Института Пастьор, Париж, и в Гарш с Гастон Рамон. Известен е както с научните си постижения, така и със заслугите си за изграждане на българската микробиологична система:
1909 – Въвеждане на Васермановата реакция за серодиагностика на сифилиса.
От 1909р в продължение на 22 години – Завеждащ/Директор??? на Ветеринарния бактериологичен център, София
1910 – За пръв път в България произвежда туберкулин, малеин, антиантраксна ваксина и серум срещу антракс. Провежда изследвания срещу човешкия хеморагичния сепсис. Работи по диагностиката на свинската холера.
1912 – Произвежда серум за свинска холера. Работи върху диагностиката на холерата и класическия тиф през Балканската война.
1913 – Избран е за директор на Института по медицинска бактериология в София. Произвежда антихолерна ваксина. Полага началото на протозоологичните изследвания в България – хемоспоридиозата в Егейскете област и … durin? в коневъдните ферми. Създава център в Ладжакйой (???)р рай Бургас, за борба с …..rinderpest чрез създаване на ваксина (Античумна ??? станция). С тази дейност за пръв път от векове се спира разпространението на rinderpest.
1923 – Основоположник и пръв професор в Катедрата по бактериални и инфекциозни заболявания във Факултета по ветеринарна медицина към Софийския университет. По-късно пет пъти е избиран за декан на факултета.
1930 – Въвежда диагностиката на синия език (foot-and-mouth disease). Избран е за почетен член на Съюза на ветеринарите в Унгария.
1932 – Доктор хонорис кауза на Берлинския университет.
Elected Honorable Member of the Union of Veterinarians in Bulgaria;
1940 - Doctor Honoris Causa of the Higher Veterinary School in Hanover;
Elected Honorable Member of the Royal Leopoldine-Karoline Academy of Natural Sciences in Haale;
1941 - 1942 - Rector of the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski";
1943 - Elected Corresponding Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences;
1947 - Elected Regular Member (Academician) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
July 14, 1947-1961 - Director of the newly founded by his initiative Institute of Microbiology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences;
1949 - The first description of erysipeloid (together with Prof. Ljuben Popov);
1951 - First communication on Q-fever in Bulgaria. Twice awarded with State Award - in 1950 for his entire scientific merit and in 1952 - for the preparation "Bistrin";
1955 - Elected Corresponding Member of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Berlin;
Academician Stephan Angeloff set up the scientific and practical bases of Microbiology in Bulgaria and established scientific school, branched in all areas of Bulgarian microbiology. His presence is felt best of all here in the Institute of Microbiology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
The Institute of Microbiology was founded on March 7, 1947 by the world-famous Bulgarian scientist Prof. Stephan Angeloff, Member of BAS [тук – линк към биографията със снимка на академика], who had been its first director for 15 years.
The Institute was founded to cover the need of a modern research centre of national importance for investigations in the rapidly developing and prosperous branches of microbiological science. Initially, the Institute comprised five units: bacteriological (medical, agricultural and industrial bacteriology), protozoological, virological (investigation of viruses and viral diseases in man, animals and plants), immunological and biochemical. During the period 1947-1962, the research, under the leadership of Prof. S. Angelov and his collaborator, Prof. Ilia Kujumgiev, was directed to the infectious pathology of humans and domestic animals, a topic extremely actual after the Second World War. The achievements in the study of the eth(?)iology and the development of diagnostic methods and immunoprophylactic preparations of these infections were significant. Also Bacteria, mycoplasma and L forms, the antibiosis and theantibacterial medicinals, as well as the agents causing protozoic invasions were studied. The beginning of the investigations in the field of infectious immunology were set by Prof. Vladimir Markov, Member of BAS. The industrial microbiology started with the investigations of Prof. Ignat Emanuilov, Member of BAS, on the microbiology of milk and dairy products, biochemistry and physiology of lactic acid bacteria and the application of bacterial enzymes (proteinases) in cheesemaking. Along with bacteria as producers of biologically active substances filamentous fungi were studied.
About Since 1964, the investigations were grouped into two principal problems: I. Metabolism and biosynthesis of microorganisms and their regulation; II. Nature and regularities of the interactions between the microorganisms and the macroorganism. That was the time when the presently existing structure and problematics of the Institute was layed????????:
In the field of microbial morphology, a variety of species and strains of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts, were characterised by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functional morphology of the microorganisms was investigated under various cultivation conditions. The ultrastructural localization of a variety of enzymes and its changes in relation to biotechnological processes were examined. The cellular interactions with the host were studied, with special reference to host phagocytes. The structure of microbial surface layers and its variability was also addressed. Prof. DSc. N. Cherepova, Prof. DSc H. Krustev and Assoc. Prof. Dr. L. Michailova contributed significantly in this area.
The investigations in the field of microbial biochemistry aimed the elucidation at contemporary biochemical level of the main peculiarities in the physiology and biosynthetic capabilities of the microbial cells. The main object of these studies were some enzymes (ribonucleases, acid and alkaline phosphatases from yeasts, bacterial neuraminidase and luciferase), proteinase and nuclease inhibitors, microbiological transformation of steroids, protein-lipid interactions in bacterial membrane in regard to the secretion of extracellular enzymes.
As a result of the methodical investigations carried out by Prof. Simeon Galabov and his collaborators the relationship between antigenic structure and biological properties of bacterial endotoxins were clarified by the use of different methods for their detoxication. Data were obtained about the medical application of endotoxins, based on their antigenicity (diagnostic kits), immunogenicity (vaccines), interferon-inducing activity and tumor necrotic action.
The research work in the field of microbial genetics was developed by Prof. Kaltcho Markov, Corresponding Member of BAS. The investigations were connected with the problem of prophage interference, genetic transfer in Bacillus thuringiensis and Group A Streptococci, hybridization of Actinomyces sp. in order to increase their productivity, construction of gene maps of Streptomycetes - producers of antibiotics, molecular identification of microorganisms by the use of PCR, as well as genomic differentiation by M13 DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping. Other people that contributed???
The Institute of Microbiology has always played a leading role in applied microbiology. Microbial producers of a wide spectrum of biologically active substances were isolated: enzymes, aminoacids proteins, carotinoids, various antibiotics with wide spectrum of activity. The physiology and biochemistry of microbial producers, including extremophilic bacteria (thermophilic and alkalophilic) and also the properties of the synthesized products were studied in detail. A wide spectrum of methods for immobilization of enzymes and microbial cells, producers of biologically active substances, were elaborated. The contribution of ………???? in the field is to be mentioned.
The investigations in infectious bacteriology after 1962 were directed to the changes provoked in the pathogen during the course of infectious and immunization process (Prof. Alexander Toshkov, Corresponding Member of BAS, and collaborators) and later research was focused on the factors and mechanisms of bacterial virulence and bacteria-host interactions using as a model Yersinia infection (Prof. Dimitar Veljanov and collaborators).
At the beginning of 60ies started investigations in the field of the experimental chemotherapy of viral infections. Search for viral inhibitors from Bulgarian medicinal plants (tested mainly on influenza viruses) was extended later with systemic studies on the creation and characterization of some new effective antivirals (vs. influenza, toga and other virus groups), on the combined effects of viral inhibitors (efficient against herpes and picornaviruses) and their mechanisms of action.
After the pioneer for the Bulgarian immunology works carried out by Prof. Vladimir Markov followed the investigations on cell immunity and L-forms of bacteria under the guidance of Prof. Valchan Valchanov and Prof. Assen Toshkov. A wide spectrum immunopharmacological screening was performed aiming the selection of new active substances.
These are the basic directions also in the present research activities of the institute of Microbiology. They correspond to present-day demands for studies directed to human health, food safety and sustainable development. This is reflected in the competitiveness of our research projects on national and international basis, and is also illustrated by the fact that in 2004???, after a serious audition process, the Institute has become associated to the Pasteur Institute.