Програма за регионално развитие на Румъния за 2007-2013г



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Сектор

Институционална рамка

Индикатор

Разходи за опазване на сухоземни и морски хабитати на единица защитена територия

Дефиниция /вид

Amount of money spent on management of conservation lands over time, per unit of land area

Единица за измерване

Euro per ha or km2

Методология

Division of all funds allocated for management of designated areas by total area of land under designated status

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

Expenditures on conservation activities indicates both the commitment of states to meet biodiversity objectives as well as their capacity to do so. Capacity is built only slowly over time, and is comprised of more then financial commitments, but financial commitments form a part of the core of capacity building in this area.

Ограничения

Management activities cover a wide variety of activities, not all of them directly beneficial to biodiversity conservation. Management activities can even include activities harmful to conservation, such as unsustainable timber harvesting and building recreational facilities that have a negative impact on wildlife. However, expenditures do provide a reliable indicator of a state’s capacity to meet objectives set out in management plans for conservation lands.

Източник

Adapted from the Convention on Biological Diversity

Наличност на дата от международни източници

NA


Приложение 10. Примерни индикатори за борба с опустиняването и ерозията на почвите възприети от международни организации


Сектор

Селско стопанство

Индикатор

Обработваема площ и площи с трайни насаждения

Дефиниция /вид

Arable and permanent crop land is the total of “arable land” and “land under permanent crops”. Arable land is the land under temporary crops, temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (for less than five years); and land under permanent crops is the land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest

Единица за измерване

1000 ha.

Методология

This indicator shows the amount of land available for agricultural production and, inter alia, the cropland area available for food production. The data when related to other variables such as population, total land area, gross cropped area, fertilizer use, pesticides use, etc., can also be used to study agricultural practices of the country. In order to be useful, it must be available as a time series. Changes in the indicator value over time or between various components may show increased or decreased pressure on agricultural land. This indicator is of value to land planning decision making.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The indicator is connected to the use of land for agricultural activity and is historically based on point estimates derived from data collected in periodic agricultural censuses and surveys.

Ограничения

This indicator does not reveal anything about increased productivity of agricultural land, or of the spatial variation in land quality.

Източник

UNCSD.2001

Наличност на дата от международни източници

FAO Statistical Databases. http://apps.fao.org/




Сектор

Селско стопанство

Индикатор

Използване на торове

Дефиниция /вид

Extent of fertilizer use in agriculture per unit of agricultural land area.

Единица за измерване

kg/ha.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The purpose of this indicator is to measure the intensity of fertilizer use in agriculture (crop husbandry). Extensive fertilizer use is linked to eutrophication of water bodies, soil acidification, and potential of contamination of water supply with nitrates. The actual environmental effects will depend on pollution abatement practices, soil and plant types, and meteorological conditions.


Методология

Data on the quantities of fertilizers used are converted into the three basic nutrient components and aggregated. The three components are nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P205), and potassium (K20). Factors for chemical breakdown are standardized. Data on fertilizers are compiled from industry sources and non-traditional sources. Data for developing countries generally refer to domestic disappearance based on imported products.

Ограничения

Environmental impacts caused by leaching and volatilization of fertilizer nutrients depend not only on the quantity applied, but also on the condition of the agro-ecosystem, cropping patterns, and on farm management practices. In addition, this indicator does not include organic fertilizer from manure and crop residues, or the application of fertilizers to grasslands. The indicator assumes even distribution of fertilizer on the land.

Източник

UNCSD.2001

Наличност на дата от международни източници

FAO Statistical Databases. http://apps.fao.org/

International Fertilizer Association. http://www.fertilizer.org/





Сектор

Селско стопанство

Индикатор

Използване на пестициди

Дефиниция /вид

Use of pesticides per unit of agricultural land area.

Единица за измерване

Pesticide use in metric tons of active ingredients per 10 km2 of agricultural land.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The challenge for agriculture is to increase food production in a sustainable way. One important aspect of this challenge is the use of agricultural pesticides which add persistent organic chemicals to ecosystems. Pesticides can be persistent, mobile, and toxic in soil, water, and air; and can have impact on humans and wildlife through the food chain. They tend to accumulate in the soil and in biota, and residues may reach surface and groundwater through leaching.

Методология

Data on pesticide use are usually derived from sales or “domestic disappearance” and expressed as active ingredient s. Agricultural area data are widely available. Interpretation will benefit from information on types of active ingredients in use, seasonal doses, rate of application, and variability on use for different crops and regions.

Ограничения

This indicator provides an aggregation, which ignores toxicity, mobility, and level of persistence; and spatial and application variances. It does not consider the use of pesticides outside of agriculture, which can be significant in developed countries. Data omissions and errors often occur during the transfer of the primary data to statistical authorities.

Източник

UNCSD.2001

Наличност на дата от международни източници

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). http://www.fao.org/

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). http://www.oecd.org/

European Union Eurostat. http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/

Landell-Mills. http://www.landell-mills.com/







Сектор

Горско стопанство

Индикатор

Горски площи като % от общата територия

Дефиниция /вид

The amount of natural and plantation forest area tracked over time.

Единица за измерване

%

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

Forests provide many significant resources and functions including wood products and non-wood products: recreational opportunities, habitat for wildlife, water and soil conservation, and a filter for pollutants. They support employment and traditional uses, and biodiversity. There is general concern over human impact on forest health, and the natural processes of forest growth and regeneration. Combating deforestation to maintain the production of wood and non-wood products and to preserve soils, water, air and biological diversity is explicitly considered in Agenda 21.

Методология

The measurement methods for forest area can be contained in national forest inventories, and obtained by sampling ground surveys, cadastral surveys, remote sensing, or a combination of these.

The forest area is calculated as the sum of plantations and natural forest areas with tree crown cover equal or more than ten percent.



Ограничения

The area figure does not give any indication of the quality of the forest, its ecosystem context, nor forest values or practices. The indicator does not provide information on the degradation of the forest resources in a country. The total forest area in a country might remain unchanged, but the quality of the forest can become degraded.

Източник

UNCSD.2001

Наличност на дата от международни източници

International data provided by other institutions, for example World Resources Institute, are mostly based on the FAO Forest Resources Assessment information and data.

http://www.wri.org/

FAO Statistical Databases. http://apps.fao.org

The FAO Forestry Department Information Note on Criteria and Indicators for SustainableForest Management. http://www.fao.org/forestry/FODA/infonote/infont-e.stm

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). http://www.itto.or.jp/

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). http://www.unep.org/






Сектор

Горско стопанство

Индикатор

Интензивност на дърводобива

Дефиниция /вид

The indicator compares the total forest fellings as a percentage of the net annual increment.

Единица за измерване

%

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The indicator aims at assessing whether forests are being used within the limits of their actual productivity. If the ratio is smaller or equal to one, it means that the country is harvesting less, or equal, to the annual forest increment. This represents the sustained yield principle. If the ratio is more than one, a country is over-harvesting its wood, or other specific forest resource.

Методология

The enumerator is the total annual roundwood production. The denominator is the total annual productive forest increment. An adequate time series is required to show meaningful trends.

Ограничения

Harvesting intensity gives us an indication of the degree of tree cover reduction at a given time, but does not refer to what will happen to the forest after it has been “intensely harvested”. This indicator should be interpreted over the longer term. In given cases, the annual roundwood production might exceed the forest increment for market reasons, age structure of forests, or other reasons for a few years without being an indication for unsustainable management.

Източник

UNCSD. 2001

Наличност на дата от международни източници

FAO Statistical Databases. http://apps.fao.org

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). http://www.itto.or.jp/







Сектор

Деградация на почвите

Индикатор

Земни площи засегнати от засушаване/опустиняване

Дефиниция /вид

This is a measure of the amount of land affected by desertification and its proportion of national territory.

Единица за измерване

Area (Km2) and % of land area affected

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The indicator should be a mechanism for determining the importance of this issue at the national level. Trend data over time can indicate success of response mechanisms. For dryland areas, desertification is a central problem in sustainable development. While many dryland ecosystems have generally low levels of absolute productivity, maintenance of that productivity is critical to the present and future livelihood of many hundreds of millions of people. Combating desertification is the core of sustainable development for large areas of the world. Severe degradation is a major impedent to sustainable development; moderate or slight degradation is also a significant barrier.

Методология

Measurement for this indicator initially requires an assessment of the extent of land degradation throughout the arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid zones of the nation. This is best done by a combination of previous assessments represented in map form, carried out by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the United Nations Office to Combat Desertification and Drought (UNSO), and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO); and updates from a combination of remote sensing and local knowledge.

The creation of an index that combines degrees of severity will require the following measures:

(i) Area subjected to severe land degradation xKm2 (severe here includes both the severe and very severe categories of UNEP.

(ii) Area subjected to moderate land degradation yKm2.

(iii) Area subjected to slight land degradation = zKm2.

(iv) National area (excluding surface water bodies) nKm2.

(v) National area of drylands (vulnerable to desertification, assuming that all drylands are

potentially vulnerable to desertification. Hyper-arid lands are excluded), consisting of

arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid land = dKm2.

From the above measurements, the following sets of numbers can be derived:

Indicator computations:

a. National area affected by desertification

= x + y + zKm2

b. Percent of national area affected by desertification

= x + y + z X 100

n

c. Percentages of national area affected by severe, moderate and slight desertification respectively can be calculated in the same way.



d. Percent of national drylands affected by desertification

= x + y + z X 100

d

e. National area not affected by desertification



= n - (x + y +z)Km2

f. National dryland area not affected by desertification

= d - (x + y + z)Km2

Trends can be determined by comparing results computed for a sequence of years (for example, every five years).

A useful extension of the indicator would be for countries to report dryland areas (d) as a percentage of all agriculturally productive areas (e=n-hyper arid land) to give an indication of the overall vulnerability of the country to desertification.



While it is based on a combination of analytical and subjective assessment, if these are done systematically on an annual basis, a sound database can be developed. Given the importance of determining the extent and severity of desertification to the index, it may be that a periodic special survey using remote sensing and ground assessment may be important, though this may only be technically feasible for some countries.



1 Случаят се позовава на два основни документа: доклада ЕО за Регионалната оперативна програма за периода 2007-2013 г., изготвен от Регионалния център по околна среда за КЕЕ и офиса им в Румъния (www.recromania.ro/), и съвещателен документ от Ausra Jurkevicuite – ЕО за оперативните програми на структурните фондове за периода 2007-2013 г. в Румъния за Easy-Eco конференцията във Виена, март 2008 г. Допълнителни коментари и разяснения са предоставени лично от Mrs.Jurkeviciute.




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