Assault- заплашване с физическо насилие, опит за физическо насилие



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Assault- заплашване с физическо насилие, опит за физическо насилие

Battery- нанасяне на побой

Blackmail/extortion – изнудване/ шантаж

Bribery - подкуп

Burglary – кражба с взлом

Conspiracy – заговор

Forgery – фалшификация

Fraud – измама

Kidnapping – отвличане

Mayhem/aggravated assault –осакатяване/ тежка телесна повреда

Perjury – лъжесвидетелствувo

Rape – изнасилване

Robbery – обир

Theft/larceny – кражба

Murder – предумишлено убийство

Manslaughter – правен термин за убийството на човешко същество по начин смятан от закона за по-малко престъпен от предумишленото убийство, or непредумишлено убийство (involuntary manslaughter)

Felony – углавно престъпление – сериозно престъпление, което обикновено е наказуемо с повече от една година затвор

Misdemeanor – дребно престъпление – престъпление, което е по-малко нарушимо от споменатото по-горе, наказуемо с не повече от година затвор. простъпка

Infraction – законoнарушение

Conviction – осъждане

Beyond a reasonable doubt – извън основателно съмнение

Burden of proof – тежест на доказване (Latin: onus probandi)

Defendant – подсъдим, обвиняем - suspect

Defenses

Justifiable Homicide-a killing without evil or criminal intent, for which there can be no blame, such as self-defense, to protect oneself or to protect another, or a shooting by a law enforcement officer in fulfilling his/her duties. деянието, което е извършено при неизбежна отбрана This is not to be confused with a crime of passion or claim of diminished capacity which refer to defenses aimed at reducing the penalty or degree of crime.

insanity- невменяемост. If the offender was acting at the time of committing the criminal act under such defect of reason as to not know the nature and quality of his or her actions, and did not realize that what he or she was doing was wrong. Also, a legally defined deranged state of mind or lack of understanding.
self-defence (defense) (aka defense of a third party) -if the criminal act involved the exercise of reasonable force and was committed under the necessity to protect oneself (or others for whom one is responsible) and one’s property. неизбежна отбрана, самоотбрана, крайна необходимост (when defending one’s property)
duress/ coercion- принуда. In common law jurisdictions, if physical force (or threat of physical force ) is used, it is considered coercion. Any other threat would be duress. However, the BG term принуда seems to include both concepts.
necessity -if one broke the law in order to prevent a greater harm to people or property - крайна необходимост

entrapment- A person is 'entrapped' when he is induced or persuaded by law enforcement officers or their agents to commit a crime that he had no previous intent to commit – убеждаване на дадено лице от страна на правоприлагащ или държавен орган да извърши наказуемо деяния.


causation- причинно-следствена връзка

Provocation - The act of inciting another to do something. Provocation simply, unaccompanied by a crime, does not justify the person provoked to commit a crime, but may lessen the penalty. - провокация

Right to be represented by counsel – The assistance of counsel for the accused in all criminal prosecutions – Право на адвокатска защита или на обвиняемия за всички предприети спрямо него действия в досъдебното следствие и съдебната фаза

Subpena/subpoena – a writ order of the court commanding that a person should appear at a particular time and place before the court in order to testify as a witness - призовка

Right to a fair & speedy trial –право на справедлив съдебен процес в разумен срок или право на справедлив съдебен процес

perpetrator - one who actually performs a criminal act извършител

accessory (before the fact and after the fact) - one who counsels, procures, aids or abets съучастник, who can be помагач или подбудител (before) и укривател (after). Съучастник is a general term which includes the English concepts of perpetrator, accessory and accomplice.

accomplice - one who is present and directly participates in the crime. съучастник

Strict liability- where there is liability (responsibility) even in the absence of intent or recklessnes - наказателна отговорност

parole- The conditional release of a person convicted of a crime prior to the expiration of that person's term of imprisonment, subject to both the supervision of the correctional authorities during the remainder of the term and a resumption of the imprisonment upon violation of the conditions imposed. Предсрочно освобождаване

probation- A sentence whereby a convict is released from confinement but is still under court supervision; a testing or a trial period. Probation can be given in lieu of a prison term or can suspend a prison sentence if the convict has consistently demonstrated good behavior. Условно освобождаване, (пускане на свобода)
Double jeopardy/Autrefois Acquittal - Generally, if an accused has already been convicted of an offense, or acquitted of an offense, he cannot again be convicted of the same offense arising from exactly the same circumstances. – забрана срещу повторно съдебно преследване и наказание за същото престъпление

arrest/arraignment/pretrial hearing – the apprehension of a person suspected of criminal activities/ the initial appearance of a defendant before a judge to be officially informed that he or she has been charged with a crime/ meeting with the judge when the parties haven’t come to an agreement - задържане/ повдигане на обвинение или подвеждане под отговорност/ предварително изслушване пред съда


capital punishment- The lawful infliction of death as a punishment; the death penalty. - смъртно наказание
circumstantial evidence - Information and testimony presented by a party in a civil or criminal action that permit conclusions that indirectly establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact or event that the party seeks to prove- косвено доказателство
hearsay - an out of court statement; It is generally inadmissible unless there is an applicable exception. - Слух; (Свидетелстване по слухове, свидетелски показания, основани на слухове)


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