Basic english for physicists



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English for physicists

BASIC ENGLISH FOR PHYSICISTS
Dragomir Gospodinov

PREFACE
The material in BASIC ENGLISH FOR PHYSICISTS has been developed especially for students at the Faculty of Physics and Engineering Technologies at Plovdiv University “P. Hilendarski”.

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with specialized materials of physics in English. The design of this syllabus focuses on the development of the four skills in language teaching and learning: there are separate language materials to develop the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

The main objective of the course, however, is to develop students' ability to translate papers on physics topics from English to Bulgarian.

.

Organization of BASIC ENGLISH FOR PHYSICISTS:


Each lesson of this course has the following components.
GRAMMAR

Each unit begins with a concise presentation of the grammar rules for the part


PRESENTATION

• Grammar questions Students are guided to an understanding of the language rules, and invited to work rules out for themselves.


PRACTICE

There are speaking, listening, reading, writing and grammar exercises to consolidate the language rules.


SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

• Reading and speaking There is at least one reading text per unit which is integrated with various free speaking activities.

• Listening and speaking There is at least one listening activity per unit. This is also integrated with free speaking activities.

• Writing There are suggestions for writing activities in every unit.

• Vocabulary There is at least one vocabulary exercise per unit.
LANGUAGE REVIEW and TRANSLATION

After every lesson there is a check revision section and translation which encourages students to review what they have been doing and to decide their priorities for future self-study.


BASIC ENGLISH FOR PHYSICISTS is primarily a course book for classroom use, but it also aims to give individual students insights into language learning processes, and ideas for structuring self-directed learning.


Plovdiv University “P. Hilendarski”

2013

LESSON 1

CAN / CANNOT PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

 Structure

 Examples

 We use the Present Simple Tense:

 To form the Present Simple Tense we use the verb's base form (go, workspeakstudy). In 3rd person singular (he, she, it), the base form of the verb takes -s/es(Auxiliary verbs "be," "do," "have", which can also be used as main verbs, are exceptions.)

 Affirmative form


I
you                 work
we     
they

he/she/it     works /-s/

go - goes /-es/
watch - watches /-es/
play - plays /-s/
study - studies /-es/

! Remember:

to be
I/you/we/they are
he/she/it is

to do
I/you/we/they do
he/she/it does

to have
I/you/we/they have
he/she/it has

 Negative form


I
you      DO NOT /don't/
we           WORK
they

he/she/it    DOES NOT


              /doesn't / WORK

She doesn't often go to the cinema.


2. I don't get up early at the weekend.
3. They don't speak English very well.

 Interrogative form

               I
DO       you       WORK?
             we
             they

DOES   he/she/it    WORK?

 Do they speak foreign languages?
2. Do you want a banana?
3. Does your sister play the piano?
Questions and short answers:

Do you like spaghetti?
Yes, I do.
No, I don't.

Does she know Bulgarian? 
Yes, she does.
No, she doesn't.
2. I don't get up early at the weekend.
3. They don't speak English very well.

 Interrogative form

               I
DO       you       WORK?
             we
             they

DOES   he/she/it    WORK?

 Do they speak foreign languages?
2. Do you want a banana?
3. Does your sister play the piano?

Questions and short answers:

Do you like spaghetti?


Yes, I do.
No, I don't.

Does she know Bulgarian? 


Yes, she does.
No, she doesn't.

Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning.
2. I go to school every day.
3. She sometimes goes out on Friday night.
4. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.
5. Peter works for 8 hours every day
6. We usually start work at 8 o'clock.
7. My children often watch TV in the afternoon.
8. He always forgets his keys.

when we talk about things that happen repeatedly or habitually

With Present Simple Tense we often use time expressions such as alwaysoftensometimes,usuallyseldomon Saturdays,rarelyneverevery day, etc.



work in a bank.
2. Kate speaks English very well. 
3. Tom lives in London.

when we talk about permanent or long-lasting situations

People make choices because they can't have everything they want.
2. Nurses work in clinics and hospitals. 
3. Football is a very popular sport in Bulgaria.

when we talk about people or things in general

The Earth is spherical.
2. My birthday is in May.
3. California is in the Unated States.
4. The sun rises in the east.
5. Water freezes at 0°C (32°F).

to indicate general truths, facts and scientific laws

We arrive in Rome at 6 p.m.
2. The train leaves in five minutes. 
3. The course starts next Thursday.

when we talk about travel plans and timetables (mainly with verbs such as goleavearrive,startcomereturn etc.)

She loves jazz music.
2. My aunt hates travelling by train.
3. I like ice cream. I don't like spinach.
4. I think she is a wonderful person.
5. Do you believe in God?
6. I have no money at the moment.
7. My brother has a new car.
8. That bicycle belongs to me.

with state (or stative) verbs such as likedislikelove,thinkseemlookknowfeel,understandwantneedhate,rememberforgetprefer,believemeantastehear,seehave (when the meaning is "possess")ownbelong, etc. These verbs are not normally used in the Continuous Tense (but there are exceptions).

 Pour all ingredients into a mixing bowl andmix until smooth.
2. Walk down the street to the corner and then turn right.

 to give instructions/directions

The Present Simple Tense is also used in :

sentences after "when""after""while""till" / "until""before","as soon as" - When the rain stops, we'll go out.
I'll call you back as soon as I return home.

 zero conditional sentences (when the result of the condition is always true) - If you heat water to 100°C (212°F), it boils.

 first conditional sentences (Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real (or possible) situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met.) - If you finish your homework I'll bring you to the zoo.


 Notes about formation of the 3rd person singular (he, she, it):

 If the verb ends in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o, add -es to the base form:


  kiss - kisses, finish - finishes, watch - watches, mix - mixes, go - goes

 If the verb ends in consonant + y change y to i and add -es:


  study - studies, copy - copies,  try - tries, carry - carries


PRESENTATION

Read the passage below. Use a dictionary to check vocabulary where necessary.


MOTION

Motion occurs all around us. We see it in the everyday activity of people, of cars on the highway, in trees that sway in the wind, and with patience, we see it in the nighttime stars. There is motion at the microscopic level that we cannot see directly: jostling atoms make heat or even sound; flowing electrons make electricity; and vibrating electrons produce light. Motion is everywhere.

When we discuss the motion of something, we describe its motion relative to something else; for example, when we say a racing car reaches a speed of 300 kilometers per hour, of course we mean relative to the track. When we say that a plane flies at 8 kilometers per second, we mean relative to the earth below. Motion is relative.

(From Conceptual Physics)

2. Work in pairs.

Find more examples of motion.
3. Grammar questions.

- What tense are all the verb forms in the text?

Why?


    • Why are “can” and “ cannot” used in the text?


PRACTICE

Grammar.


1 Notice that “ can” and “ cannot” have the same form in all persons. “can” and “ cannot” are followed by the infinitive (without to)

Put can / cannot into the gaps in the following sentences:

a. A cheetah ………………………… achieve peak speeds of 100 km / h.

b. We ……………… use the words “speed” and “velocity” interchangeably in everyday language, but in physics, we…………………………do this.

c. Penguins ………………………………fly.

d. You ……………………………stand with your heels and back to the wall for a long time.

e. A spaceship ………………………………… measure its speed relative to empty space, but relative to other objects.

f. Children ………………………balance a seesaw even when their weights are unequal.

2 Make the following statements negative. Then give the right information:

a. The sun rises in the west.

b. The sun moves round the earth.

c. Smoking is very good for health.

d. Light travels very slowly.

e. The water in the rivers has a lot of salt.

f. Speed is a measure of how long something is moving.
3 Make the questions to ask about the missing information:

Example : “ I get up at ………………………………”

What time do you get up?

a. Astronomers study ………………………………...............

b. A lot of oil comes from ……………………………………

c. An object accelerates when ………………………………

d. All freely – falling objects have the same acceleration because…………..

e. Copper looks like …………………………………….........

f. The sun rises and sets because ……………………………………………..
4 Make the question “ What determines …… ?”and give the answers :

Example: quantity of heat supplied ……………….. expansion of a metal when heated.

What determines the expansion of a metal when heated?

The quantity of heat supplied determines the expansion.

a. electrodes used ……………………… amount of voltage produced

b. speed of turbine ……………………… amount of electricity produced

c. amount of heat used …………………………….. amount of steam produced

d. amount of steam used …………………………… speed of rotation


2. Speaking and listening.

2.1 Look around you, say three sentences beginning :

I can see …………………………………

I can hear ………………………………..


2.2 Work in pairs:

First prepare the questions. Then make a conversation between you and your partner

Town / country - Where do you …………………………from?

Family - ………………………………………married?

- Do you have ………………………………..?

- Have you got ……………………………… ?

- How many ………………………………… ?

Occupation - What ………………..…………………… do?

Free time / holiday - What do you ………..…… in your free time?

- Where do you ………...........……on holiday?


SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

• Reading and speaking

Here are some words that may cause problems for you. Use your dictionary to help.
rate (n) instant (n) ( esp . sing) Π instantaneous (adj)

divide (v) interval (n)

legitimate ( dj) indicate (v)

experience (v) whether (conj )

experienced (adj ) variation (n)
rate” is a clue that something is being divided by time. Speed is defined as the distance covered per a unit of time. The word “ per” means “ divided by”

Any combination of distance and time units is legitimate for speed – miles per hour ( mi / h); kilometers per hour (km / h ); centimeters per day (the speed of a sick snail?); light years per century – whatever is useful and convenient.


Instantaneous speed

A car does not always move at the same speed. A car may travel down a street at 50 km / h, slow to 0 km / h at a red light, and speed up to only 30 km / h because of traffic. You can tell the speed of the car at any instant by looking at the car’s speedometer. The speed at any instant is called the instantaneous speed.


Average speed

In planning a trip by car, the driver often wants to know how long it will take to cover a certain distance. The car does not travel at the same speed all during the trip. All the driver cares about is the “average speed” for the trip as a whole. We define the average as follows:

total distance covered

average speed = ---------------------------------------

time interval

We can calculate average speed rather easily. For example, if we drive a distance of 60 kilometers in a time of 1 hour, we say our average speed is 60 kilometers per hour ( 60 km / h ). Or if we travel 240 kilometers in 4 hours, we find:

total distance covered 240 km

average speed = ---------------------------------- = --------------- = 60 km / h

time interval 4 h

Note that when a distance in kilometers ( km ) is divided by a time in hours (h), the answer is in kilometers per hour ( km / h ).

Average speed does not indicate the different speeds and variations that may have taken place during shorter time intervals. In practice, we experience a variety of speeds on most trips, so the average speed is often quite different from the speed at any instant, the instantaneous speed. Whether we talk about average speed or instantaneous speed, we talk about the rates at which distance is travelled.

( From Conceptual Physics )



Comprehension check

Complete three definitions below:

a. Speed is the rate at which distance……………………………………

b. Instantaneous speed is the speed ……………………………………..

c. Average speed is the total distance……………………………………

2. Answer the questions:

a. What is the difference between instantaneous speed and average speed?

b. Does the speedometer of a car read instantaneous speed or average speed?

c. How can we calculate average speed?

d. You walk a distance of 10 km in a time of 2 h. Find your average speed.


3. Vocabulary

The word “ speed” is both a noun and a verb. Find two examples in the text to prove that


Discuss in groups

The speedometer of a car moving northward reads 60 km / h. It passes another car that travels southward at 60 km / h. Do both cars have the same speed? Do they have the same velocity?

2. Look at the small passage (in bold) about velocity. It may help you answer the questions below.

Speed is a measure of how fast an object is moving so it's the distance traveled per unit time. Velocity on the otherhand is the rate at which an object changes a position. Speed is a scalar quantitiy while velocity is a vector quantity. so to measure velocity you also consider the direction of the movement while measuring speed does not.
VELOCITY

3. Are these statements true or false. Restate the false ones:

a. Both speed and velocity refer to the rates at which distance is travelled.

b. A car travelling on a circular track may have a constant velocity.

c. Constant direction means that the motion is in a line.

d. Velocity is a description of how fast.

4. Practice problem:

a. A high-speed train travels from Paris to Lyons at an average velocity of 227 km/h. The trip takes 2:00 h. How far is Lyons from Paris?

b. Is your velocity changing if you sit on a merry-go-round and look straight ahead?
LANGUAGE REVIEW

# Present simple

The present simple is used to express a fact which is always true, or true for a long time. In other words, it is used for general statements of facts.

Translate :

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

2. Rivers run toward the ocean.

3. Science investigates natural phenomena.

4. A vehicle that changes its velocity from 0 m/s (meter per second) to 10 m/s in one second has an acceleration of 10 m/s2. There are three methods of acceleration:

speeding up, slowing down and changing direction.
TRANSLATION FOR HOMEWORK

Whether you realize it or not, whenever you watch almost any sporting event, in which there are balls, you are witnessing projectile motion firsthand. Have you ever realized that balls or any other object flying throught the air have the same shaped path? They are both projectiles and they both have parabolic trajectories. That is because of gravity is accelerating the object in the vertical direction, while the object remains at a constant speed in the horizontal direction (right). When there is no horizontal velocity, the object is in free fall (left). Note how the maximum height decreases the second time the ball in the right picture hits the floor. This occurs because of a loss of mechanical energy to the floor. See the Conservation of Energy section below to see why.


Vocabulary

accelerate (v)

[ək'seləreit]

ускорявам, засилвам (се), при давам по-голяма скорост, увеличавам скоростта

acceleration (n)

[ə.kselə'reiʃn]

ускорение

achieve (v)

[ə'tʃi:v]

постигам, достигам, осъществявам, реализирам, извършвам

activity (n)

[æk'tiviti]

дейност, деятелност

astronomer (n)

[ə'strənəmə]

астроном

average (n)

['ævəridʒ]

средно число, обща сума/брой

balance (v)

['bæləns]

везни, теглилка, кантар

certain (adj)

['sə:tn]

сигурен, уверен, убеден (of в)

cheetah (n)

['tʃi:]

вид дребен леопард, дресиран за лов на елени

circular (adj)

['sə:kjula]

кръгъл

circular motion




кръгово движение

clue (n)

[klu:]

нишка, диря, следа, указание, улика

combination (n)

[.kambi'neiʃn]

комбиниране, комбинация, съчетание

consist (v)

[kən'sist]

състоя се, съставен съм (of от)

convenient (adj)

[kən'vi:niənt]

удобен, пригоден, подходящ

cover (v)

['kʌvə]

покривам, закривам, прикривам, обвивам, обгръщам

define (v)

[di'fain]

определям, очертавам, формулирам

description (n)

[dis'kripʃn]

описание, изображение

directly (adv)

['direktli]

(на) право

distinction (n)

[dis'tiŋkʃn]

разлика, различие

divide (v)

[di'vaid]

деля (се), разделям (се), подразделям (се), разклонявам се, разграфявам, градуирам

electricity (n)

[ilek'trisiti

електричество, разг. електрически ток/енергия

electron (n)

[i'lektrɔn]

физ. електрон

electrode (n)

[i'lektroud]

електрод

expansion (n)

[iks'pænʃn]

разширение, разширяване, разтягане, уголемяване, увеличаване

experience (n)

[iks'piəriəns]

опит (житейски и пр.), опитност

experienced ( adj )

[iks'piəriənst]

опитен (in), с опит

fuel (n)

[fjuəl]

гориво, топливо

heel (n)

['hi:l]

пета

highway (n)

['haiwei]

шосе

indicate (v)

['indikeit]

показвам, соча, посочвам

instant (n)

['instənt]

незабавен, неотложен, моментален, непосредствен, мигновен

instantaneous (adj).

[,instən'teinjəs]

мигновен, моментален, незабавен

interchangeably (adv)




заменимо

interval (n)

['intəvl]

промеждутък, разстояние, интервал

investigate (v)

[in'vestigeit]

изследвам, проучвам, проверявам

jostle (v)

['dʒɔsl]


бутам (се), блъскам (се) (with, against), пробивам си път с лакти

legitimate (adj)

[li'dʒitimət]

законен, легитимен

measure (v)

['meʒə]


мярка, мяра, размери, количество, единица, уред за мерене (сантиметър и пр.)

microscopic (adj)

[,maikrə'skɔpik]

микроскопичен

motion (n)

['mouʃn]

движение, ход

motion to and from




Движенние напред-назад

northward (adv) & (adj)

['nɔ:θwəd]

на север, в северна посока

occur (v)

[ə'kə:]

срещам се, намирам се (за минерала, растения и пр.)

peak (n)

[pi:k]

(остър планински) връх

peak speed







penguin (n)

['peŋgwin]

зоол. пингвин

phenomenon (n)

[fi'nɔminən]

явление (природно и пр.)

phenomena (pl. n )




явления

produce (v)

[prə'dju:s]

произвеждам, изработвам фабрикувам

race (n)

[reis]

надбягване, надпреварване, надпрепускане

a racing car




Състезателна кола

rate (n)

[reit]

норма, мярка, размер, стандарт, тарифа, степен, процент, част

relative (adj)

['relətiv]

отнасящ се, свързан (to за, с)

remain (v)

[ri'mein]

оставам, продължавам да съществувам

rotation (n)

[rou'teiʃn]

въртене, завъртане

seesaw (n)

['si:sɔ:]


климушка, люлка (върху пън и пр.)

snail (n)

[sneil]

охлюв (ам. и гол)

southward (adv) & (adj)

['sauθwəd]

южен, обърнат на юг

spaceship (n)

['speisʃip]

ракетен кораб за междупланетни полети

speed (n)

[spi:d]

бързина, скорост

speedometer (n)

[spi:'dɔmitə]

тех. спидометър, скоростомер

steam (n)

[sti:m]

пара, изпарение, прен. разг. енергия, сила

supply (n)

[sə'plai]

снабдявам, запасявам (with с)


turbine (n)

['tə:bin]

турбина

unequal (adj)

[ʌn'i:kwəl]


неравен, нееднакъв, различен (no големина, качество и пр.)

variation (n)

[vεəri'eiʃn]


изменение, видоизменение, промяна, колебание, отклонение, вариране (на температура, цени и пр.)

velocity (n)

[vilɔsiti]

скорост, бързина

vibrate (v)

['vaibreit]

трептя, вибрирам

voltage (n)

['voultidʒ]

волтаж, напрежение

whether (conj)

['weðə]

дали (или не)



Abbreviations

adj = adjective; adv = adverb ; conj = conjunction; opp = opposite

pl = plural; prep = preposition; pron = pronoun; pp = past participle; n = noun; v = verb

Каталог: drago -> english%20for%20physicists
english%20for%20physicists -> Present continuous tense
english%20for%20physicists -> Example: New York is more exciting than Seattle. Use the superlative form when speaking about three or more objects to show which object is 'the most' of something. Example
english%20for%20physicists -> 1. How to make the Past Continuous Tense?
english%20for%20physicists -> Present perfect finished or unfinished time present perfect tense
english%20for%20physicists -> Present simple past simple tense
drago -> Search earthquakes‘ в новосъздадената по-горе папка във формат. Csv
drago -> Анкетна карта моля, попълнете следната бланка. Полетата с по-тъмен шрифт са задължителни за попълване. Име


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