Конкурс за академична длъжност "Доцент" по професионално направление 8 „Проучване, добив и обработка на полезните изкопаеми", специалност „Обогатяване на полезни изкопаеми"



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Приложение 15.
Резюмета на научните трудове на гл. ас. д-р Ирена Любенова Григорова

за участие в конкурс за академична длъжност “Доцент” по професионално направление 5.8 „Проучване, добив и обработка на полезните изкопаеми”, специалност „Обогатяване на полезни изкопаеми”
Ч А С Т ВТОРА

Научни публикации за заемане на академична длъжност „Доцент”
1. Григорова, И., П. Цветанов, Л. Кузев. Брикетиране на въглища от Черноморския басейн с полимерни органични вещества. Годишник на МГУ, том 48, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, 2005, стр. 103-106.
Резюме. Поради значителния дефицит на качественно гориво, брикетирането на каменовъглени ситнежи по настоящем придобива голямо значение. Проведено е изследване по брикетиране на кафяви каменни въглища от Черноморския минен басейн с полимерни органични свързващи вещества, поливинилалкохоли, три вида: Mowiol 47-88, Mowiol 30-92 и Mowiol 15-79 с цел да се сравнят отделните свързващи вещества и да се установи влиянието на всяко едно от тях върху технологичните параметри на процеса брикетиране и качествените показатели на брикетите. Експерименталните резултати показват, че с най-висока якост на натиск се характеризират брикети получени с Mowiol 15–79 добавен в сух вид към въглищата (в зависимост от времето на престой, влагосъдържанието и зърнометричния състав якостта на натиск на брикетите достига 9,0 МРа) и брикети с Mowiol 30–92 внесен под формата на воден разтвор (7,0-8,5 МРа в зависимост от процентното участие на твърдо вещество в разтвора). Резултатите от лабораторните изследвания отразяват положителното влияние на веществата върху повишаване качествените характеристики на брикетите.
2. Григорова, И., И. Нишков, Л. Кузев. Брикетиране на кафяви въглища с производни на акрилната киселина. Годишник на МГУ, том 48, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, 2005, стр. 107-110.
Резюме. Важно направление за усъвършенстване на процеса брикетиране, осигуряващо получаването на едрокъсови продукти (брикети) с високо качество от ситнежи на кафяви въглища е намирането на нови вещества в качеството им на свързващи за процеса уедряване. Проведено е лабораторно изследване по брикетиране на кафяви каменни въглища от мина “Черно море” със свързващи вещества производни на акрилната киселина: хидролизиран полиакрилонитрил (Nabold) и кополимер на акрилната киселина (Modipan). Резултатите от изследването показват, че прилагането на Nabold към въглищата за брикетиране довежда до производството на висококачествени брикети отговарящи на стандартните изисквания за качество, висока якост на натиск (в зависимост от времето на престой и зърнометричния състав на въглищата между 8,0-10,0 МРа), водоустойчивост. Прилагането на Modipan като свързващо вещество води до получаване на брикети с по-ниски якостни показатели в сравнение с другия изследван полимер.
3. Grigorova, I., I.Nishkov, P. Tsvetanov, L. Kuzev. The Utilization of Technological Waste during the Process of Pressing into Briquettes of Lignite Coals. In: Proc. of XXIII International Mineral Processing Congress, Istanbul, 2006, pp. 1123-1128.
Abstract. It is made an inquiry of the possibilities for briquetting of electro-filter dust and coal odds and ends, produced as waste products of lignite’s processing and briquetting with a combined substance of thal pek and molasses. The qualitative indicators of the received briquettes that are pressed with the above-mentioned combined substances satisfy the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard. Some subjections are made, which show the influence of the strongest acting parameters in the process.

The adding of lemon, wine and oxalic acids along with thal pek increases the briquettes’ strength of compression and moisture sustainability. Adding 10 % water solution of the above-mentioned acids gives the most positive results according to the strength.



Due to the laboratorial tests on the waste products, produced by lignite coals’ briquetting with combined substances in the Briquette Factory “Brikel” J.S.Co in Galabovo, it can be proposed that including the inquired combined substances and additions in the investigated optimal parameters and conditions for making the process of technological wastes’ consolidation leads to production of qualitative briquettes with good technological indicators and high moisture sustainability.
4. Григорова И., П. Цветанов, Л. Кузев. Брикетиране на кафяви въглища с органични свързващи вещества. Годишник на МГУ, том 49, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, октомври 2006, стр. 153-157.
Резюме. Проведено е изследване по брикетиране на кафяви въглища от Черноморския минен басейн с органични свързващи вещества. Експерименталните резултати отразяват положителното влияние на някои от веществата върху повишаване качествените характеристики на брикетите. Изследваните свързващи вещества имат добра адхезионна способност, придават на брикетите добри якостни показатели и влагоустойчивост. Получени са зависимости показващи влиянието на най-силно действащите параметри при процеса: количество на свързващото вещество; водоустойчивост, водопоглъщане и атмосфероустойчивост.
5. Grigorova, I., P. Tzvetanov, L. Kuzev. Influence of moisture by briquetting of technological waste with binding agent molasses. In: Proc. of the 6th International Industrial Minerals Symposium, February, 2007, Izmir, Turkey, pp. 354-359.
Abstract. It is made an inquiry for reading influence of moisture of subject of briquetting technological waste from the remaking and briquetting of lignite coals – electro-filter dust and coal odds from briquette’s factory “Brikel” J.S.Co in Galabovo, using the combined substance molasses. The influence of the combined substance is given with definition of strength of pressure for the made briquettes. The received results displayed that the strength of pressure of the briquettes made with binding agent molasses is in direct depend with the moisture of the electro-filter dust or the coal odds.
6. Grigorova, I., P. Tzvetanov, L. Kuzev. Briquetting of brown coals with binding agents colophony lime. In: Proc. of XII Balkan Mineral Processing Congress, June, 2007, Delphi, Greece, pp. 327-331.
Abstract. The discovering of new binding agents is an important direction for development of briquette’s process, ensuring the obtaining of coarse-grained products (briquettes) with high quantity of odds and ends of lignite and young brown coals. It is made an investigation in laboratory conditions of binding agent colophony lame in briquetting of brown coals from the Black Sea’s mine pool. The investigation’s results showed that of the binding agent colophony lame are obtained high qualitative briquettes conforming of the standard requirements for property, a high strength of pressure and water impermeability.
7. Григорова, И., И. Нишков, В. Велев. Възможности и проблеми при оползотворяването на биомасата като енергиен ресурс. Годишник на МГУ, том 50, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, октомври, 2007, стр. 167-170.
Резюме. Разгледани са възможностите за използване на биомасата като енергиен ресурс в страните от Европейския съюз и са очертани проблемите и екологичните аспекти при производството й за енергийни цели. Анализирани са условията, потенциала и значението на биомасата в България. Проучени са икономическите предпоставки за сегашната й употреба и бъдещото приложение в страната ни. Предложени са мерки за разширяване потреблението и повишаване на енергийната ефективност при използване на биомасата, насочени към повишаване на добива и преработка на малоформатна дървесина, и въвеждане на инсталации за нейното изгарянето. В резултат на проучването беше установено, че повишеното използване на биомаса за енергийни цели е перспективно направление за заместване на традиционните източници, увеличава възможностите за износ на електроенергия, и намалява енергийната зависимост на страната ни.
8. Кузев, Л., С. Сексенов, И. Григорова. Вибрационно смилане на алуминиев скраб. Годишник на МГУ, том 50, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, октомври 2007, стр. 149-174.
Резюме. За получаването на прахообразен алуминий са известни няколко метода. Широкото му приложение в практиката дава основание за търсене на нови по-ефективни и по-евтини начини за получаването му. Изследването е свързано с проверка влиянието на ПАВ при смилането на алуминий, както и предварителната термична обработка на предназначения за смилане алуминиев скрап.

Разработени са технологични схеми за получаване на алуминиев прах с желана зърнометрия, както и на алуминиев прах с определена (люспеста или заоблена) форма на частиците.


9. Kalaitzis, А., I. Grigorova, I. Nishkov. Microproducts from Marble Processing Waste. In: Proc. of 19th International Congress & Exhibition, Fillers and Pigments 2, 2008, Athens, Greece.
Abstract. This paper refers to the use of the marble processing wastes as a new source for high quality carbonate fillers. The marble processing waste is the sludge produced in the marble processing plants during the size-cutting and smoothing phases. Technological waste samples from different marble manufacturing companies in Bulgaria were characterized. The mineralogical and chemical composition, particle size distribution, solid phase content, whiteness, yellowness and abrasiveness were determined. The possibility of obtaining white carbonate fillers from marble processing waste was studies in a laboratory. The technological tests included hydro classification, thickening, filtration, and drying of calcium carbonate products. The pilot scale manufacturing operations were conducted. The natural calcium carbonates produced were properly tested and their properties correspond to the requirements of the relevant international standards specification for white carbonate fillers. It was found that the calcium carbonates obtained from marble processing waste could be used in the paper, paints and building industries.
10. Вълканов, Н., Р. Бодурова, М. Дамянов, И. Григорова, И. Нишков. Екологичен мониторинг на отпадните води от ОФ „Ерма река. Сборник на Национална научно-техническа конференция “Съвременни технологии и практики при подземно разработване на полезните изкопаеми”, Девин, май 2008, стр. 208-212.
Abstract. Monitoring of waste water of “Erma reka” concentrator, Zlatograd was carried out. Representative water samples from final tailings and the overflow water from tailings disposal were studied. Physico-chemical parameters were determined. It was found that purifying water corresponds to the requirements of EU emission standard. The content of free cyanides decreases 100 times.
11. Grigorova, I., I. Nishkov. Limestone Waste – An Effort towards Protection of the Environment. In: Proc. of 24th International Mineral Processing Congress, September, 2008, Beijing, China, pp. 3653-3656.
Abstract. As a result of the main processes of the limestone treatment – sawing, buffing and polishing, a technological waste is usually obtained. These final tailings consist of a water suspension with highly variable solid phase content and granulometric composition.

Since the waste is conducted to a tailing pool or another place, this leads to environment pollution. In this work the slurry waste generated during the limestone processing in a Bulgarian limestone manufacturing company was characterized.

The chemical composition, particle size distribution, solid phase content, whiteness, yellowness, abrasion, specific surface and density were determined. The possibility of obtaining building/construction materials from limestone processing waste was studied in a laboratory scale. The technological tests included thickening, filtration and drying of waste products. Continuous operation laboratory thickener was used. Coagulant Accepta® 8302 /aluminum sulphate solution/ and anionic flocculant Magnafloc® 155 were found to be the most effective in the sedimentation of the products. Filtration tests were performed using a laboratory pressure filter. Drying tests were carried out in laboratory facilities using the direct heating method. On the basis of the laboratory results a technology for limestone treatment waste was developed. A production line for building materials from limestone slurry was set up. As a result the manufacturing company has a possibility to use circulating water.
12. Krasteva, M., L. Tzotzorkov, D. Nikolov, I. Grigorova, I. Nishkov. reagent – enhanced destruction of flotation froths. In: Proc. of 24th International Mineral Processing Congress, September, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 2116-2122.
Abstract. The froth flotation process for separation of mineral ores depends on the establishment of carefully controlled froth. The formation of very stable froth in the flotation circuit is a problem that may occur in many plants, resulting in down-time, low quality and grade of final product and considerable expenses.

Froths build up on the top surfaces of thickeners, tanks and flotation cells until they overflow, or until the efficiency of the circuit is impaired. A similar problem exists in Assarel concentrator, Assarel-Medet PLC, Bulgaria. Copper and copper-pyrite ores are dressed in Assarel concentrator. They are characterized with variable and complex mineral and physical composition.



During the flotation cycle, resilient and difficult to break-down froth is formed, which subsequently impedes the process of thickening and clear overflow obtaining. Due to this problem continuous sampling in the cycle of thickening was conducted. The mineralogical, chemical composition, particle size distribution and solid phase content of the products were determined. It was established that the solid phase of the froth build up on the top surface of the thickeners differs considerably from those of the cleaner concentrate and the thickener underflow. The data clearly indicates that a separation process takes place on the top surface of the thickener – fine particles of chalcopyrite are concentrated in the froth. The role of chemical reagent addition in the break-down of the flotation froth is investigated in terms of surface chemical phenomena involved in the stabilized froths. Measurements of the cooper minerals wettability and surface tension at the air/liquid interface were performed. The surface active agent AERODRI® dewatering aids were laboratory tested. Bench-scale froth collapse tests were conducted. Reagent addition into pulp-froth system promotes and leads to a bubbles coalescence, an improvement of the wetting of the mineral particles and a decrease of the surface tension at the air/liquid interface. The results of the laboratory experiments showed that the presence of the surface active agent leads to considerably decrease of the froth stability and the destruction of the deleterious froths build up on the top surface of the thickeners in Assarel concentrator.
13. Григорова, И., И. Нишков, В. Велев. Уранови суровини, потенциал и перспективи. Сборник на Научна конференция с международно участие “Науката в условия на глобализацията”, 2008, Кърджали, стр. 353-358.
Abstract. In connection with elapsed dramatic changes of the prices of the classic energy bearers and realized of the no optimistic scripts of the climate, increasingly reinforced the standpoints of the followers for radical restructure in the consumption of the primary energy sources. Fixed parts in this process take the nuclear products with the entire responsibility in reference to their using. For our country, with operative nuclear power production actual is the question for the estimation of the expedience on recovery of the uranium production.
14. Григорова, И., И. Нишков, В. Велев. Ролята на биогоривата в енергийната политика на Европа. Годишник на МГУ, том 51, свитък II, Добив и преработка на минерални суровини, София, октомври, 2008, стр. 43-46.
Резюме. Във връзка с нарастващите цени на петрола, неговата изчерпаемост, острата необходимост от намаляване емисиите на парникови газове и опазване на околната среда са разгледани възможностите на биогоривата като алтернатива на конвенционалните горива. Aнализите показват, че повишеното използване на биогорива е перспективно направление за заместване на конвенционалните източници и намаляване енергийната зависимост. Проучен е техническия потенциал за производство на биогорива в България и са посочени ефектите от прилагането им в транспорта. Европейска енергийна политика в областта на биогоривата цели постепенното им внедряване в енергийния сектор като начало за частично заместване на традиционните горива.
15. Grigorova, I., I. Nishkov. Flotation Removal of Heavy Metal Ions. In: Proc. of 11th International Mineral Processing Symposium (IMPS2008), October, 2008, Belek-Antalya, Turkey, pp. 921-926.
Abstract. The possibility of removal of heavy metal ions from mining waste waters through ion flotation is investigated. A combined precipitate-coagulation method of flotation was applied by electro-floto-coagulation installation. The ions under go precipitation with xanthates forming chelate complex with high hydrophobicity. Electroflotation is used for obtaining of gaseous phase with sufficient volume and high dispersity. A cationic surfactant is used for the stabilization of foam formation and for the improvement of the precipitation with the main precipitant. A high degree of removal of heavy metal ions and purification of waste water was achieved.
16. Nishkov, I., I. Grigorova, N. Valkanov, R. Bodurova, M. Damianov. On the possibility of reducing the silica content of zinc sulphide concentrates. In: Proc. of XIIIth Balkan Mineral Processing Congress, Bucharest, Romania, 2009, pp.234-239.
Abstract. The products and the processes in the zinc flotation circuit of lead-zinc concentrator “Erma reka”, Zlatograd were characterized. Particle size distribution, chemical and mineralogical compositions of five products were determined. The causes for the high silica content in the final zinc concentrate were established. It was found that the quartz is present mainly as liberated particles (>60-80%) in the fine fractions of the studied products. Regarding the liberated quartz the selectivity of the process is not effective. Two approaches were tested to reduce the quartz content of zinc concentrate – froth washing in zinc cleaner flotation and new gangue depressants in zinc circuit. The experiment results show that there is possibility of reducing the silica content of final zinc concentrate more than 2.5 times.
17. Velev, V., I. Nishkov, I. Grigorova, B. Denev. Economic trends in Bulgarian mining industry development. In: Proc. of 3-rd Balkan Mining Congress, October, Izmir, Turkey, 2009, pp. 467-470.
Abstract. The mineral resources are the basic meaning of the stable functioning of the modern societies. The access to mineral resources and their acceptable price is a very important for the each country. In the first half of 2007 year the world economy holding a high rate of growth, which in big stage is result of the high economy growth in the new arising markets.

The world recession hasn’t serious reflection on the Bulgarian economy until September 2008 year. The Bulgarian growth rate in the first three quarters on 2008 year is high level, especially compared with the minimum growth in EU, USA and Japan. In the last three months on 2008 year because of spoiling of the international situation and the decreasing of resource prices in the international markets the Bulgarian mining industry registered considerable reduction. Bulgarian mining industry holds out against the unfavorable economic factors, having in mind that 2009 is going to be quite difficult for mining as a whole.


18. Marinov, M., A. Valchev, I. Nishkov, I. Grigorova. New Approach on the Wet Separation of Quartz-Kaolin Raw Material. In: Proc. of 3-rd Balkan Mining Congress, October, Izmir, Turkey, 2009, pp. 225-230.
Abstract. The deposits of quartz-kaolin raw materials are localized in the NE Bulgaria. This raw material is a mixture of quartz sand and kaolin in a ratio approximately 4:1 and is mine in open pits. After wet separation the raw material yields two products – washed kaolin (different grades) and quartz sand (different grades). The kaolin-silica raw materials from Vetovo open mine and the technological tailings from Vetovo processing plant were characterized. Particle size distribution and chemical composition were determined. It was established that there are a lot of losses of quartz in final tailings. New approach on kaolin-silica raw material separation was tested in laboratory scale.

The test work was performed on the Derrick Stacksizer screening machines – Model 2SG48-60R-1STK single deck Repulp Stacksizer equipped with 0.43 mm opening Derrick Urethane Panels to make a 500 micron size separation and Model 2SG48-60R-1STK single deck Repulp Stacksizer equipped with 0.15 mm opening Derrick Urethane Panels to make a 100 micron size separation. The results of laboratory experiment show that there are possibility to increase the production of quartz sand grade PK016 and to start the production a new grade PK010 and finally to increase the quartz sand recovery.


19. Нишков, И., И. Григорова. Депонирани технологични отпадъци – потенциална суровина за производство на манганови концентрати. Сборник на Юбилейна конференция 25 години подземно строителство, София, 2009, стр. 171-176.
Резюме. Изследвани са потенциалните възможности за оползотворяване на депонирани технологични отпадъци от преработване на манганова руда в Босна и Херцеговина. Проведени са изследвания в лабораторни и полупромишлени условия. Установени са зърнометричен, химичен и минераложки състав на получените пробни партиди манганов концентрат от полупромишлените тестове. Доказани са запасите на техногенната суровина. Минералният състав на получените манганови концентрати показва, че би могло да се разшири приложимостта им в нови направления.
20. Василева, М., И. Нишков, И. Григорова, Б. Денев. Изследване на възможностите за оползотворяване на манганови технологични отпадъци. Годишник на МГУ, том 52, свитък II, Геология и геофизика, София, октомври, 2009, стр. 31-36.
Резюме. През продължителния период на експлоатация на мангановорудно находище в Босна и Херцеговина, са натрупани значителни количества технологични отпадъци, получени при преработката на манганова руда. В настоящата работа се привеждат данни от извършените зърнометрични, химични и минераложки изследвания на технологичните отпадъци от дейността на различните инсталации на обогатителната фабрика, с цел изясняване възможностите за тяхното оползотворяване, като потенциална суровина за производството на манганов концентрат. Получените резултати могат да бъдат използвани при разработването на технология за производство на манганов концентрат от стари отпадни продукти.
21. Popov, N., I. Nishkov, T. Popova, I. Grigorova, J. Rubio, S. Taffarel. Natural and modified zeolite to improve the adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In: Proc. of 2nd International Symposium on the Processing of Industrial Minerals (PIM '10), 2010, Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract. The present work describes the characterization of natural zeolites and adsorption results for Pb+2, Cd+2, Fe+2 and Mn+2 from aqueous solutions. The zeolitic-rich tuff samples provided from Bulgarian Beli Bair (BB) and Beli Plast (BP) deposits and from North Chile (NCl), were characterized by their chemical and mineralogical composition, adsorption and ion exchange properties and X ray analysis. The average content of clinoptilolite for both samples was found to be more than 75%. The materials had ion exchange capacity (NH4+) varying from 107 to 121 meq/100g respectively. Thermo-chemical modification of natural clinoptilolite from BB and BP was made in order to increase the ion exchange capacity up to 180 meq/100g. Results showed almost complete removal (>90 %) of the all metal ions studied. Activations of NCl-zeolite (118 m2/g) by pre-treatment with various ions greatly enhanced the Mn adsorption, in that order and mechanisms involved were elucidated. The maximum adsorption capacity (pH 6) were decreasing for activation with NaCl (21.3 mg Mn2+/g), NaOH (20.9 mg Mn2+/g), Na2CO3 (19.7 mg Mn2+/g), NH4Cl (18.5 mg Mn2+/g) and natural (7.1 mg Mn2+/g).

The Langmuir isotherm model showed excellent correlation to the equilibrium data, and maximum capacity to adsorption depends of the activation type realized before the adsorption. The treatment of heavy metals bearing solutions using filter packets and stirred flasks was studied experimentally. The filters were made by a special technology following standard requirements in Bulgaria; i.e.: particle size distribution, mass ratio (g/m2) and permeability. These filters purified the waters substantially lowering the metal ion concentrations well below sanitary standard limits. The reduction of Pb+2 was about 18 times, Mn+2, more than 20 times and Fe+2 and Cd+2, 50 times. The total reduction of the heavy metals was more than 25 times and varied within the limits of 5 to 14 mg/L after the third stage treatment. Best results were obtained with blends of BB and BP natural clinoptilolite at 50:50 ratios and after the thermo-chemical treatment. 

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