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Приложение 8. Примерни индикатори за промени в климата възприети от международни организации



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Приложение 8. Примерни индикатори за промени в климата възприети от международни организации

Сектор

Енергетика, транспорт

Индикатор

Температури на глобално и европейско ниво

Дефиниция /вид

The indicator shows trends in annual average global and European temperature and European winter/ summer temperatures (all compared with the 1961-1990 average). The units are degrees C and degrees C per decade.

Единица за измерване

Degrees Celsius and degrees Celsius per decade

Методология

Four data sets on trends in global and European temperature have been used for this indicator:

  1. Global average monthly and annual temperature from Climatic Research Unit (CRU) University of East Anglia, UK. The data set is a global average temperature increase, given per month for the period 1851-now. Reference period is 1961-1990 average. Unit is degrees Celsius.

  2. European average annual and monthly temperature, is the European subset of Dataset 1 prepared by using the routine of the climate explorer of the Netherlands Meteorological Office KNMI (using a 35-70 N latitude and -15 - 65 East longitude grid).

  3. Trends in annual, summer and winter temperature station data in Europe from European Climate Assessment (ECA) programme. The data set represents the decadal change in mean annual, summer and winter temperature at different meteorological stations across Europe. The time period is 1976-1999.

  4. Trends in the frequency of summer days (>25 degrees C) and cold, and heat wave occurrence, based on station data in Europe from European Climate Assessment (ECA) programme.

  5. Projected trends are based on 6 IPCC scenario's (Intermediate ACACIA scenario) and are available in IPCC WG2  report Climate change 2001 Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

Data are extracted from the programmes, and data sets 1 and 2 are used to illustrate global and European trend in temperature, respectively. Datasets 3 and 4 are used to illustrate temperature extremes: Cold and warm days are the 10th (= the average temperature of the 36 coldest days) and 90th percentile (=the warmest 36 days) of daily mean temperature, respectively. The index is expressed as anomalies relative to the climate normal average (i.e.1961-1990). More: http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041006175027/full_spec

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

Temperature is directly linked to climate change and is a state variable that changes in response to the pressures of global warming. Surface air temperature gives one of the clearest signals of climate change.The European Council proposed in its Sixth Environmental Action Programme (6EAP, 2002), reaffirmed by the Environment Council and the European Council of March 2005, that the global average temperature increase should be limited to not more than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels (about 1.3 degrees C above current global mean temperature).

Ограничения

There is a generally agreed methodology with low uncertainty. Data sets used for the indicator have been checked (by CRU, UK) and corrected for changing methodologies and location (rural in the past, now more urban). The uncertainty is larger for projected temperature changes, partly resulting from a lack of knowledge of parts of the climate system, including climate sensitivity (temperature rise that results from doubling CO2-concentrations) and seasonal temperature variability.

Източник

  • Eurostat

  • EEA

Наличност на дата от международни източници

Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-115/EN/KS-77-07-115-EN.PDF




Сектор__Всички_сектори__Индикатор'>Сектор

Всички сектори

Индикатор

Прогнозиране на отделянето на парникови газове

Дефиниция /вид

This indicator illustrates the projected trends in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the EU and Member State targets, using existing policies and measures and/or additional policies and/or use of Kyoto mechanisms. Greenhouse gas emissions are presented by type of gas and weighted by their global warming potentials.

Единица за измерване

Million tonnes in CO2-equivalent

Методология

Projected progress calculates the gap between emission projections and the Kyoto target. Two types of projections are considered: (1) with existing measures projections and (2) with additional measures projections. In addition, for those Member States which provided the relevant information, the use of Kyoto Mechanisms is considered in the progress assessment.

Further detail available in the report: "Analysis of greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2004" Chapter 4.



Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

It responds to the question of what is the progress in reducing GHG emissions towards the Kyoto Protocol targets in Europe, taking into account current domestic policies, measures and Kyoto mechanisms. What are the emissions changes by sector and what are the emissions changes by GHGs?

Източник

EEA (European Environmental Agency)

Наличност на дата от международни източници

EEA, http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041006175027/IAssessment1116322231704/view_content

EEA, http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/IMS/ISpecs/ISpecification20041007131701/full_spec





Сектор__Енергетика__Индикатор__Комбинирано_генериране_на_енергия'>Сектор

Климат, почви, селско стопанство

Индикатор

Индекс за качество на климата

Дефиниция /вид

Structural analysis 1961-1990. Climate data in DISMED will be based on the aridity index, which requires a harmonized way of computing evapotransipration, that at present differs among countries. In this respect FMA will be in charge of defining the most suitable algorithm(s) concerning evapotranspiration and the correct time frame, which depends on the available data and on the methodological approach adopted

Единица за измерване

Aridity Index = P (Yearly mean rainfall) / PET (Yearly mean potential evapotranspiration). Data spatialization procedures: Rainfall spatialization procedure: - Kriging interpolation Temperature spatialization procedure: - Multilinear regression using DEM, Latitude, Longitude and sea distance PET calibration procedure: - monthly calibration of Thornthwaite PET values with Penman-Monteith PET values : kriging interpolation of the ratio between the two estimated PET to obtain 12 correction grids

Източник

EEA

Наличност на дата от международни източници

http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=612



Сектор

Енергетика

Индикатор

Зависимост от внос на енергия

Дефиниция /вид

Energy dependency shows the extent to which an economy relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs.

Единица за измерване

Net imports divided by the sum of gross inland energy consumption plus bunkers

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

The Green Paper on a European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy (66) describes security of energy supply, together with sustainability and competitiveness, as the three main objectives for EU energy policy.

Източник

Eurostat

Наличност на дата от международни източници

Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-115/EN/KS-77-07-115-EN.PDF




Сектор

Енергетика

Индикатор

Комбинирано генериране на енергия

Дефиниция /вид

This indicator is defined as the share of electricity from combined heat and

power (CHP) generation as a percentage of gross electricity generation



Единица за измерване

% of gross electricity generation

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

Combined heat and power or cogeneration is a technology used to improve energy efficiency through the simultaneous generation of heat and power in the same process. Heat delivered from CHP plants may be used for process or space-heating purposes in any sector of economic activity including the residential sector. CHP thus reduces the need for additional fuel combustion for the generation of heat and avoids the associated environmental impacts, such as CO2 emissions.

Източник

Eurostat

Наличност на дата от международни източници

Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-77-07-115/EN/KS-77-07-115-EN.PDF




Сектор__Енергетика_/_Климат__Индикатор'>Сектор

Енергийна ефективност

Индикатор

Интензивност на енергийното потребление

Дефиниция /вид

The indicator measures energy consumption (gross inland consumption) per unit of GDP. It measures the energy consumption of an economy and its overall energy efficiency. The indicator gives a picture of the decoupling of energy use from GDP growth. Changes in the indicator reflect changes in energy efficiency and in the structure of the economy.

The Gross Inland Consumption of Energy is calculated as the sum of the Gross Inland Consumption of the five types of energy:  coal, electricity, oil, natural gas and renewable energy sources. In addition, each of these figures is calculated as an aggregation of different data on production, storage, trade (imports/exports) and consumption/use of energy.



Единица за измерване

The Gross Inland consumption is measured in kgoe (kilogram of oil equivalent), while GDP is measure in 1000 EUR. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of the inflation, being the base year 1995 (ESA95). Finally, the energy intensity ratio is measured in kgoe/1000 EUR

Методология

All necessary data is compiled through five annual Joint Questionnaires (one for each type of energy above-mentioned). These questionnaires are called « joint Â» because they are shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency (organisation that belongs to the OECD). This means that the methodology is completely harmonised for all EU and OECD countries, including the USA and Japan. For the EU-Member States, Candidate countries and EFTA countries the provision of data is based on a gentlemen's agreement.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

This indicator is of use in tracking progress towards a number of sustainable development objectives such as environmental protection, achieving the Kyoto commitments by reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and improvement of the environmental performance of processes.

Ограничения

The relevance is restricted as GDP is calculated in Euro which affects comparability in particular with the US and Japan through exchange rate effects. Also, in some countries gains emissions were increasing despite gains in energy efficiency (OECD 2007).

Източник

Наличност на дата от международни източници

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/policyreview.htm




Сектор

Енергетика

Индикатор

Производство на електроенергия от ВЕИ

Дефиниция /вид

This indicator is the ratio between the electricity produced from renewable energy sources and the gross national electricity consumption calculated for a calendar year. It measures the contribution of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to the national electricity consumption.

1. Renewable energy sources.


They are defined as renewable non-fossil energy sources: wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases.

2. Electricity produced from renewable energy sources.


It comprises of the electricity generation from hydro plants (excluding pumping), wind, solar, geothermal and electricity from biomass/wastes. Biomass/wastes electricity comprises of electricity generated from wood/wood wastes and other solid wastes of renewable nature (straw, black liquor) burning, municipal solid waste incineration, biogas (incl. landfill, sewage, farm gas) and liquid biofuels.

3. Gross national electricity consumption.


It comprises of the total gross national electricity generation from all fuels (including autoproduction), plus electricity imports, minus exports.

Единица за измерване

%

Методология

Data is compiled through annual Joint Questionnaires (one for electricity and another one for renewable energy sources). These questionnaires are called " joint " because they are shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency (IEA, part of the OECD). The methodology is fully harmonised between both organisations.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

This indicator is relevant to the reduction of CO2 emissions (Kyoto engagements/environmental policies) and may also contribute to secure energy supply for electricity generation.

Ограничения

Energy use from non-renewable sources can have a damaging effect on the environment and on the sustainability of economic growth so it needs to be taken into account in policy-making.

Източник

Eurostat

International Energy Agency



Наличност на дата от международни източници

EUROSTAT.http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,45323734&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=welcomeref&open=/&product=STRIND_ENVIRO&depth=2




Сектор

Енергетика

Индикатор

Производство на енергия и пестене на енергия и инсталирани мощности

Дефиниция /вид

Project level

Методология

These data are usually available from GEF project reports, published government data, or published industry or market reports (low cost). For some project clusters, data may need to be obtained from local unpublished sources or industry observers (medium cost). Energy savings figures will be readily available for direct project outputs (low cost) but may not be available at all on a national or industry wide basis (high cost), or may require limited sampling of installations in the field (medium cost). Energy savings from utility demand-side management (DSM) projects using national electric power utilities should be readily available (low cost). Energy savings figures will generally be unavailable at the international level.

Източник

GEF

Наличност на дата от международни източници

http://www.undp.org/gef/undp-gef_monitoring_evaluation/sub_undp-gef_monitoring_evaluation_documents/Climate%20Change%20Indicators.pdf




Сектор

Енергетика / Климат

Индикатор

Наличност на финансиране и механизми

Дефиниция /вид

Program level indicator, which shows the number of financing programs and mechanisms dedicated to target measures, should be available from government and donor agencies (low cost).

Единица за измерване

EUR

Методология

Surveys of commercial banks as to their lending patterns, interest rates, and views of specific technologies, as well as industry views on the availability

of financing would require much greater resources (medium to high cost), as well as governmental funding schemes, flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol on emissions outside the national territory, structural funds, etc.



Източник

GEF

Наличност на дата от международни източници

GEF, http://www.gefweb.org/interior_right.aspx?id=234




Сектор

Икономика

Индикатор

компании, на които се оказва помщ за инсталиране на ВЕИ технологии

Дефиниция /вид

This involves a grant or some other form of material assistance provided by the governmental program / private donor for the installation of a system or part of a system of renewable energy technology, e.g. solar power, wind

or water power, wood burning from renewable sources like biomass; energy from waste or landfill gas.



Единица за измерване



Методология

The governmental authorities / private donors should provide information on the number of companies receiving grant aid or some other form of assistance that has led them to install this technology.

Целесъобразност при взимане на политически решения

Program level indicators

Източник

GRDP

Наличност на дата от международни източници

http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/grdp/1393647/?lang=_e

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